Oral Antidiabetic drugs serve to normalize elevated blood glucose levels. The needs of diabetics are different in terms of the drug in general, dose and therapy of the medication. This is dependent on type and intensity of the disease, age, weight and existing late complication and co-diseases.
There are different groups of antidiabetic drugs:
Biguanids: Out of this group only the substance Metformin is still in use which acts in different ways: it lowers insulin resistency by increase of glucose uptake into the cells. Furthermore Metformin stopps Gluconeogenesis in the liver and the uptake of carbohydrates from intestines. There is also a positive impact on fat metabolism.
Sulfonyl urea: Their blood sugar lowering effect is caused by an increase of the production of insulin. This is possible as long as the insulin producing cells of the pancreas are not completely destroyed or damaged. Therefore these group of pharmaceuticals is perfect for type 2 diabetics who need support for the body´s own insulin production.
Inhibitors of glucose resorption: They inhibit untake of glucose from the intestines into blood to enable insulin to decompose glucose more efficiently. If this medication is taken with the meals it helps to avoid high glucose levels after meal.
Insulinsensitizer: The effect of this group of antidiabetic drugs is completely different. Uptake of glucose into peripheric muscle and fally tissue is increased without needing higher amounts of insulin. The body reacts more sensible towards insulin, insulin resistency is decreased. It compensates exactly for the malfunction at diabetes type 2.